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                      CLASS -XII                     UNIT-III         YOGA AND LIFESTYLE TOPIC -Meaing of yoga , Asanas as Preventive Measure & Importance of Yoga Link- 👇 https://youtu.be/tsnVht3QUkE

  PHYSICAL EDUCATION

TERM -1

CLASS-XII                                                      

Planning in Sports

1.Meaning of Planning

Planning may be defined as deciding in advance what to be done in future. It is the process of thinking before doing. It involves determination of goals as well as the activities required to be undertaken to achieve the goals. Planning deciding in advance – What to do, How to do, When and by whom.

2.Objective of Planning

  1. To achieve the Aim of programs.

  2. To consider the Requirements of programs

  3. To Reduce the chance of mistakes.

  4. To bring up Co-ordination

  5. To use the Available Resources

  6. To arrange resources

  7. To make the Schedule of programs

  8. To give Information to concerned

  9. To form various Committees

  10. To direct and Guide Duties of various committees.

  11. To provide management and co-ordination

  12. To plan during program works

  13. To plan after program work.

  14. To consider boarding and lodging needs

3.Various Committees and their Responsibilities

Tournament

Four types of tournament.

  • Knock- out Tournament

  • League or Round Robin Tournament

  • Combination Tournament

1.knock-out cum league tournament

2.Knoxk -cum knock-out Tournament

3.League cum League Tournament

4.League cum League Tournament

  • Ranking tournament

1.Challenge Tournament

2.Pyramid Tournament

Knock-out tournament

single-elimination, knockout, or sudden death tournament is a type of elimination tournament where the loser of each match-up is immediately eliminated from the tournament. Each winner will play another in the next round, until the final match-up, whose winner becomes the tournament

Advantages of knock out Tournament 

1.Economical Tournament

2.Less Time

3.Good Team Emerges winner

4.Less Tiredness to players

5.Spectator's Interest

Demerits of Knock -out Tournament

1.Good team may get Eliminated

2.Skilled Selection not possible

3.High stress on player

League or Round Robin Tournament

League Tournament It is also known as round robin tournament. In this type of tournament, all teams play against each other team irrespective of winning or losing. The number of matches played in league tournament is calculated by Number of teams.

Advantage of League Tournament

1.Ampple opportunity

2.True winner

3.Improve the performance

4.Skilled selection 

5.Provide Ranking

6.Players' interest

7.Good Challenge

Demerits of League Tournament

1.Time consuming

2.Large arrangement

3.Less Interest of Spectators

4.demoralizes weak team

5.More expensive.

Fixture-Fixture is a process of arranging the teams in systematic order in various groups for competitive fight for Physical activities.

Bye- bye is a special privilege given to a team in the initial rounds because of which it gets exempted from playing in the first round and directly enters the second round.

Seeding-Seeding is placing the good teams(previous position holder)at beneficiary places.

  Seeding is to arrange or schedule so that most teams or players are Matched in later rounds of play.

Seeding teams can play directly in quarter final 



  UNIT -2 Sports and Nutritions

A diet which contains the proper amount of each nutrient, i.e. like carbohydrate, fat, protein etc is called Balanced Diet. A diet which consists of all the essential food constituents’ viz. protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and water in correct proportion is called balanced diet. A balanced diet contains sufficient amounts of fiber and the various nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, and minerals) to ensure good health. Food should also provide the appropriate amount of energy and adequate amounts of water.

Types of balanced diet

Balanced diet is divided into three parts-

A.Energy yielding food-it consists of carbohydrates and fats this food help to provide energy to individual for his workout or activities.

B.Bodybuilding Food-it consists of proteins it help in the growth and development of body.

C.Defensive food-it consists of vitamins minerals and water this food help in proper functioning and defence of various organs

                 Nutrients

1.Macronutrients

A.Coebohydrates

B.Fats

C.Proteins

2.Micronutrients

A.Vitamins-

(I) Fat soluble vitamin

Vit- A

Vit- D

Vit- E

Vita-K

(II)Water soluble Vitamins

Vit- B

Vit- C

B-Minerals

(I)Major Minerals

Calcium 

Phosphorus

sodium 

potassium 

chloride 

magnesium 

sulphur

(II) Trace Minerals

Iron

zinc 

copper 

magnesium 

chromium 

iodine

fluoride

Nutritive Components of diet

CARBOHYDRATES- Carbohydrates are needed to provide energy during exercise. Carbohydrates are stored mostly in the muscles and liver. Complex carbohydrates are found in foods such as pasta, bagels, whole grain breads, and rice. They provide energy, fiber, vitamins, and minerals. These foods are low in fat. Simple sugars, such as soft drinks, jams and jellies, and candy provide a lot of calories, but they do not provide vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients.


PROTEIN-Protein is important for muscle growth and to repair body tissues. Protein can also be used by the body for energy, but only after carbohydrate stores have been used up. Only strength training and exercise will change muscle. Athletes, even body builders, need only a little bit of extra protein to support muscle growth. Athletes can easily meet this increased need by eating more total calories (eating more food).


Fat-It provides the highest concentration of energy of all the nutrients. One gram of fat equals nine calories. One pound of stored fat provides approximately 3,600 calories of energy. Saturated fats are found primarily in animal sources like meat, egg yolks, yogurt, cheese, butter, milk. This type of fat is often solid at room temperature. Unsaturated fats include monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, which are typically found in plant food sources and are usually liquid at room temperature.


Vitamin- A well-planned and nutritionally adequate diet should meet an athlete‘s vitamin and mineral needs. Supplements will only be of any benefit if your diet is inadequate or you have a diagnosed deficiency, such as an iron or calcium deficiency. Use of vitamin and mineral supplements is potentially dangerous and they should not be taken professional without the advice of a qualified health professional.


Minerals: – Mineral are very essential in our diet. Four percent of our body weight is made up minerals. These are required for healthy teeth, bones and muscles. It is also used by body for various activities such as transmission of nerve, impulses formation of hormones and maintenance of heart beat etc.


Macro Minerals: – a) Calcium: Calcium is among the top macro-minerals in terms of growth and development of our bones and teeth. It helps in blood clotting. Its deficiency may cause rickets. The sources are cheese, milk, orange, juice, eggs, green leafy vegetables and cereals.


b) Potassium: Potassium is one of the most required minerals in diet. It is helpful in keeping the nervous system and muscular system fir and active all the time. it helps in maintaining the amount of water in blood and tissues. Its main sources are banana, tomatoes, green leafy vegetables, beans etc.


c) Sodium: It helps in muscular activities. It also helps in transmission of nerve impulses. The sources are table salts, pickles and butter etc.


d) Magnesium: It repairs and maintains body cells. It is found in meat, brown rice, beans and whole grains etc.


Phosphorus: Phosphorus helps in the formation of bone and teeth. It keeps the muscles and nerve activities normal. The sources are egg, fish, liver, milk, and unpolished rice etc.


Micro Minerals:  a) Iodine: It produces the hormones for the thyroid gland. It is also significant for proper growth and development. Lack of iodine can cause goiter (swollen thyroid gland) and mental retardation. The sources are iodized salt, fish and sea food.


b) Iron: it is essential in the production of hemoglobin. Its deficiency causes anemia. The sources are meat, egg, dry fruits, spinach banana and greet leaf vegetables.


c) Chromium: it is essential in the production of hemoglobin. Its deficiency may cause diabetes. The sources are soya beans, black gram, carrot, tomato, groundnuts, bajra and barley.


Non-nutritive components of diet

a) Water


b) Roughage


c) Artificial sweeteners


d) Preservatives


e) Plant products


Fibre or roughage has no nutritive value. It is undigested part of the food or it can be said that it cannot be digested by human intestinal tract. It consists of water and improves intestinal function by adding bulk to the food. It helps the individual to satisfy the appetite. It prevents constipation.


Eating for weight control 

A healthy weight is considered to be one that is between 19-25 BMI. If the BMI is between 25-29 an adult is considered overweight and if it is above 30, the person is considered to be obese.


Since, 3500 calories equals both one equals about one pound of fat, if you cut 500 calories from your typical diet each day, you will lose one pound weight a week.


Here are some useful tips for weight control with proper eating:


a. Avoid common pitfalls: diet, especially fat diets or quick fix pills and plans, often set you up for failure. Prepare a plan that is more realistic.


b. Put a stop to emotional eating:  We don’t always eat simply to satisfy hunger. All too often, we turn to food for comfort and stress relief. When this happens, we frequently pack on pounds.


c. Tune in what you eat : Do not eat while at your desk or working, and in front of the TV screen. The result is that we consume much more than we need, often without realizing it. Counter this tendency by practicing “mindful” eating: pay attention to what you eat, savor each bite, and choose foods that are both nourishing and enjoyable


d. Fill up with fruit, veggies and fibre: to lose weight, you have to eat fewer calories. But that doesn’t necessarily mean you have to eat less food. You an fill up while on a diet, as long as you choose your foods wisely.


e. Indulge without overindulging: Do not avoid some type of food (ice cream or cookies or chips) completely. Instead of denying yourself the unhealthy foods you love, simply eat them less often.


f. Take charge of your food environment: Set yourself up for success by taking charge of your off environment: when you eat and what foods are available.


g. Make healthy lifestyle changes: You can support your dieting efforts by making healthy lifestyle choices .


Eating for weight control :- Factors to control body weight


Balanced diet

Drinks lots of water

Eating lot of fibrous food

Regular Medical Checkup

Avoid Fats

Medicine only by doctors advice

Physical Activity

Avoid Drinking

Avoid junk food

Meals in small shifts

Follow Hygenic Habits

Do not Dieting

Never try sliming pills

Avoid over eating

Balancing the intakes of calories and expenditure of calories.

Food  myths:

a. Eggs increases cholesterol level so avoid them: There is no doubt that eggs are good source of health. An egg provides you various nutrients. It is as per daily requirements of cholesterol by our bodies. So, if you take one egg daily there is no problem of cholesterol level.


b. Drinking while eating makes you fat: The actual fact behind this misconception is that enzymes and their digestive juices will be diluted by drinking water while eating which slows down your digestion which may lead to excess body fat.


(i) Myth: Low fat or No fat diet are good.

Fact: Body needs fats for energy, tissue repair and to transport vitamin A.D, E.K. Just cut down on salivated fat eating un saturated fats.


(ii) Myth Crash: Dieting or Fasting may loose weight.

Fact: It may be true in short term but ultimately it hinder weight loss. Loosing over the long term burns off fat whereas crash dieting or fasting not only removes fat but who leans muscles.


(iii) Myth: Food eaten late night is more fattening.

Fact: It doesn’t make much change.


(iv) Myth: Low fat milk has less calcium that full fat milk.

Fact:- Skimmed and semi skimmed actually have more calcium because it is in watery part and not in creamy part of milk.


(v) Myth: Vegetarian cannot build muscles.

Fact: Vegetarian can built muscles as meat eaters by getting their proteins from vegetables such as cheese nuts pulses. Etc.


(vi) Myth: Healthy food is expensive.

Fact: Tinned, stored, packed food is expensive. Whereas local & seasonal food is inexpensive.


PITFALL OF DIETING

An individual who is overweight wants to reduce weight they starve for reducing weight many times skip meals to lose weight, sometimes take slimming pills.


1.Extreme Reduction of Calories.

2.Restriction on some nutrients

3.Skipping meals

4.Intake of calories through drinking

5.Under estimating the calories.

6.Intake of tabelled foods.

7.Not preferring physical activities.

8.low energy diet.

9.Taking less liquids

10.Starving

C. Food Intolerance

Food intolerance is that when a person has difficulty in digesting a particular food.

Symtoms : Nausea, Vomiting, Pain in joints, headache and rashes on skin, Diarrhoea, sweating, palpitations, burning sensations on the skin stomach.


Food Intolerance means the individual elements of certain foods that can not be    properly processed and absorbed by our digestive system. The main cause of food intolerance is the complete absence of enzymes responsible for breaking down or absorbing the food elements. Food intolerance can cause nausea, stomach pain, diarhhoea, vomiting, gas cramps,heartburn, headaches, irritability, etc.


Causes : Absence of activity of enzymes responsible for breaking down the food elements.

These are usually innate sometimes diet related or due to illness.


Management : Change in diet causing reaction some therapies like fructose intolerance therapy, lactose intolerance therapy, lislamine intolerance therapy can be applied.D. Food Myths/Dieting Myths


3.6 Sports Nutrition (Fluid & Meal in take, pre, during the post Competition)


Nutrition before competition: At least a week before the competition sportsperson       should take complex carbohydrate food which usually helps in increasing glycogen store. The fuel for the muscle is usually provided in meals 3-4 days prior to the competition. The diet should depend on the intensity of the activity. The diet should be rich carbohydrate, low in fat and protein. Two hours before the competition a high carbohydrate energy drink can be considered sufficient.


Nutrition during competition: It is important to stay hydrated and maintain sugar level so that sportsperson may not undergo fatigue. If the duration of the competition is more than 60 mins than ½ to 1 cup carbohydrate drink after 10-20 mins and if the duration is less than 60 mins than carbohydrate drink after every 20-30 mins.


Nutrition after competition: After competition it is important to recover properly , so the first preference should be given to replacement of fluid loss and this can be easily done by the intake of water or replacement drink. Meals after competition should be taken within 2 hours. For best glycogen restoration 100-200 grams of carbohydrate along with lean protein like meat or chicken should be taken. It will help in building, maintaining, and repairing of muscles. Atleat 20 gms of protein is required after completion for complete recovery.


      Unit -5 Children and  women in sports

A Motor skill is a function that involves specific movements of the bodies muscles to perform a certain task. These task could include walking, running, or even riding a bike. In order to perform this skill, the bodies nervous system, muscles, and brain has to all work together. 

Motor development in children is divided into two parts-

1.Gross motor development-

It's involves develop ment of large or big muscles child.

2.Fine motor development-

it involves development of small muscles especially hand and finger in the body.

Factor affecting motor development


1.Genetic

2.Mother lifestyle

3.Learning attitude

4. Physiological and motivational factor

5.Nutrition

6.Immunization

7.Environment

8.Disability and diseases

9.Regular practice

10.Bosy weight

11.Mental ability

12.Gender

13.Proper training

14.Safty measure

Exercise guidelines at different stage of growth and development

1.Babyhood (from birth to 1 year)

2.Infency (From 1 to 3 years)

3.Early child hood (3 to 6)

4 later childhood (7 to 12 years)

5.Adolescence (From 13 to 19 years)

Postural deformities and their corrective measures

A.Knock- knees

Knock knees (genu valgum) is a condition in which the knees tilt inward while the ankles remain spaced apart. The condition is slightly more common in girls, though boys can develop it too. Knock knees are usually part of a child's normal growth and development.


Causes-

1.metabolic disease.

2.renal (kidney) failure.

3.physical trauma (injury)

4.arthritis, particularly in the knee.

5.bone infection (osteomyelitis)

Corrective measures -

1.Yoga Asanas- Vriksh asanas,Alarm Shanur asanas, Padma Asanas, Gomukhasana.

2.Pillow exercise

3.Outward toe walking

4.Horse Riding


B-Flat Foot

 A condition in which the entire sole of the foot touches the floor when standing.

Flat feet can occur during childhood if the arches of the feet don't develop, after an injury or from the wear and tear of ageing.


Causes- Flat feet are caused by a variety of conditions including injuries, obesity, and arthritis. Aging, genetics, and pregnancy can also contribute to flat feet. You're also more likely to have flat feet if you have a neurological or muscular disease such as cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, or spina bifida.

Corrective measures-

1.Yiga asanas- Tarr Asanas, Vajra Asanas

2.Walking on sand

3.Regular running

4.Using good Quality shoes

5.Skipping

6.Pressure over Foot

7.writing with Foot

C.Bow Legs

Bowlegs (genu varum) is a condition in which a child's legs curve outward at the knees. When a child with bowlegs stands with their toes pointing forward, their ankles may touch but their knees remain apart.


Causes- rickets, a bone growth problem due to lack of vitamin D or calcium. ...

Blount disease, a growth disorder that affects the bones of the legs.

conditions that may affect bone growth around the knee including injury, infection, or a tumor.

Corrective measures-

1.Arsh chakra asanas

2.Garud asanas

3.Ardha matsyendra asanas

4.Walking with inward toe

Kyphosis-

excessive outward curvature of the spine, causing hunching of the back.


Hunchback (kyphosis) usually refers to an abnormally curved spine. It's most common in older women and often related to osteoporosis.


Causes- 

1.aging, especially if you have poor posture.

2.muscle weakness in the upper back.

3.Scheuermann's disease, which occurs in children and has no known cause.

4.arthritis or other bone degeneration diseases.

5.osteoporosis, or the loss of bone strength due to age.

6.injury to the spine.

7.slipped discs.

Corrective measures

1.Regular exercise

2.Take balance diet

3.Correct sitting and standing posture

D.Round shoulder

The term rounded shoulders is used to describe a resting shoulder position that has moved forward from the body's ideal alignment. Rounded shoulders, sometimes known as “mom posture,” are part of overall bad posture, and they can get worse if left 


Causes-

Rounded shoulders are typically caused by poor posture habits, muscle imbalances and focusing too much on certain exercises, such as too much focus on chest strength while neglecting the upper back. 


Exercises to strengthen your core, upper back and chest muscles will help correct rounded shoulders: plank.

Corrective measures

1.Chakra asanas

2.Dhanur asanas

3.Bhujanga asanas

4.Ushtt asanas

5.Backward bending

6.Revers sit up

E-Lordosis

An excessive curvature of the back that results in a “swayback” appearance like the picture on the left.

 Some Lordosis is normal in the spine at the neck and low back areas. It is when this curvature becomes excessive that it can cause problems.


Corrective measures

1.Paschimottan asanas

2.Hal asanas

3.Forward bending

4.AlterNate toe touching

5.Situps

F-Scoliosis

Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine that most often is diagnosed in adolescents.

 While scoliosis can occur in people with conditions such as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy, the cause of most childhood scoliosis is unknown.


Corrective measures

1.Ardh chakra asanas

2.Trikon asanas

3.Tarr Asanas

4.Chin -ups

Sports participation of women in india

For women’s participation in sports we have a look at ancient period. Regarding participation in the first modern Olympic (1896 Athens), there was no participation of women.


— Women participated first time in 1900 Olympics. (22 women participated in)    — In 1904 six women participated.


— And after 100 years in 2000 Sydney Olympics 4069 women had participated.


— In 2008 Beijing Olympics 4637 women participated.


Participation in India


— In 2000 karnam Malleshwari was the first woman who won bronze medal in Sydney Olympic from India.


— In 1984 performance of P.T. Usha was very good in Athletics.


— In 2012 london olympics Saina Nehwal and M.C. Maricom got bronze medal.


In 2016, Rio Olympics, Sakshi Malik won bronze medal, P.V. Sandhu won silver medal where as Deepa Karmakar opened new dimesions in gymanastics. Over the past several decades the participation of women in sports in sports field has increased tremendously. But really, it is a matter of regret for all of us to know that sports is such a field where gender inequality in strongly evident. The general social environment has not only inhibited women from participation in sports but has also criticise them when they participate. Many people comment for women “Why don’t they stay in the kitchen where they belong”?


But Now time has changed. Women are capable of changing society. Now the ideology suggests that women are participating in every sphere of life.

Unit-6 Test , Measurement & Evaluation

Test- A test is a tool which is used to evaluate the. physical fitness, skill and performance of a. sports person.

Measurement- it consists of numerical value or scientific score by expert and also known as raw score.

Evaluate-Test and Measurement are the prerequisites for evaluation. The evaluation tells the worthor progress of the individual or group.


.Motor Fitness Test/Khelo India National Fitness Test

It includes many test to evaluate various component of motor physical fitness test is useful for school going student to test and evaluate their motor fitness abilities.

1.Test- 50 M Sprint Test(Standing start)

Purpose-The purpose of 50 M Sprint test is to determine speed and Acceleration.



2.Test-600 m Run /walk test

Purpose-this tests to measure cardiovascular endurance.

Image of 


3.Sit and reach test-

Purpose-to measure the flexibility of lower back.

4.Partial curl-up test-

Purpose-to test abdominal strength and endurance which is important to back support and core stability





5.Puah-upsBoys) Modified Push up(Girls) Test

Purpose-to test and measure upper body strength and endurance

(For Boys)


(For girls)





6.Standing broad jump Test.

Purpose-this test is to check explosive strength of leg muscles.



7.Shuttle run (4*10M) Test

Purpose-this test is used to test of speed body control and the ability to change direction (Agility).


Harvard Step test-

(Cardiovascular Fitness)



This test was developed by Brouha in 1943 to measure the cardio vascular fitness of the individual.

It is good test for Measuresment of fitness and ability to recover after strenuous exercise.

Purpose- to measure the cardiovascular fitness of an individual

Requirement of test-

1.Gym bench or Box (45 cm/17inchs high for women and 50c.m./20 inches high for men

2.Stop watch

3.Assitant /Helper

Compution of fitness index of Harvard Step test

1.Duration of exercise b(in seconds.      × 100

5.5 ×Pulse count (between 1 to 1.5 minute after exercise

2.For one minute pulse calculation formula=

30000÷(Pulse 1+Pulse2+Pulse 3)

3.For calculation Pulse Calculation Formula-

100×Test Duration in Seconds

2×(Sum of Pulses 1,2,3)

Rockport walking test(For Cardiovascular Fitness)

This test is very good to measure cardio respiratory fitness of the individual. the objective of this test is to monitor the development of the athlete's maximum Cardio respiratory abiility (VO2)and use of Oxygen and during exercise.



Purpose-to measure the cardiorespiratory ability of the individual.

Requirement of test

1.Running track (200 m or 400m).

2.Stopwatch

3.An assistant/Helper

Note a.Weight is in pounds (lbs)

b.Gender- Male-1 Women-0

C.Time is expressed nin minutes and seconds.

d.Heart rate is in beats per minute.

e.Age in years

Rikli and Zone test(For Senior citizen fitness test)

Test- Chair stand test

Purpose-To check the leg strength and endurance

Objective-To complete maximum stands in 30 seconds.

Test-2 Arm curl (Bicep) Test

Purpose-To measure Upper body Strength and Endurance.

Objective-to complete maximum arm curls in 30 seconds.

Equipment-4 pounds dumbbell (weight for women)& 8 pounds dumbbell (weight for men).


Test-Sit and reach flexibility 

test-



Purpose-To measure the lower body flexibility.

Objective-to stretch the lower body as far as possible.

Test-4 Back  Scratch test

Purpose-to measure the upper body flexibility e (General Range of motion of Shoulder)

Objective-to touch or overlap the finger  of the both hand behind the back.


Test-5 Eight feet up and go test.


Purpose-to measure agility (coordinative) ,ability ,speed and balance.

two trials are conducted and lowest time in seconds in considered for scoring.


Test-6 Six minutes walk test

Purpose-to measure Aerobic endurance.


Objective-to work maximum distance in 6 minutes.

Unit-8 Biomechanics & Sports

Meaning of Biomechanics-

Biomechanics is the study of the structure and function of biological system by means of method of mechanics.

       Or

Biomechanics involve application of mechanical law to living structure.

       Or

Biomechanics is derived from Greek word' Bio and mechanics 'by humans living things and mechanics is a field of physics.

Importance of biomechanics-

  1. Understanding human movement

  2. Improved techniques

  3. Knowledge about forces acting on body

  4. Improve performance

  5. Efficient movement

  6. Correct movment

  7. Prevent injuries

  8. Knowledge about physics principles

  9. Guide safety principles

  10. Help in research work

  11. Improve the design of sports equipment

  12. Help in developing new tools

Types of Movement

Flexion-flexion is a bending movement that decrease the angle between a segment.






Example -

1.Bending the elbow 2.bending the leg at forward 3.bending of trunk

Extension-Extension is the opposite of flexion. it is a straightening moment that increase the angle between body parts.



Example-

1.Standing up from chair 2.Kicking the ball is stand

3 Extension of knee joint 4.lowering of dumbbell  

5.In extension of elbow etc.

Abduction-Application refer to a motion that pulls a structure or part away from the midline of the body.



Example -

1.Spreading of leg 

2.Splitting of legs 

3.Raising arm  to side word etc.

Adduction.Adduction refer to emotion that pulls a structure or path toward the midline of the body, Or towards the midline of a limb.

 Example 

1. Bringing the legs close after splitting.

2. lowering the arms by side.etc.

Circumduction-



A circular movement of a part.This is combination of Flexion,Extension , Abduction, Adduction and rotation.

Rotation-Movement of a bone around a longitudinal Axis .Medical rotation is movement in which the anterior aspect of limb turn towards the midline.

 Lateral rotation is movement in which the anterior aspect of  a limb turn away from the midline.

Elevation- elevation refer to moment in a superior direction. 




 Example

Shrugging is an example of elevation of the scapula.

Depression-Depression refers to movement in an inferior direction,the opposite of elevation.


Pronation-When in the anatomical position the fore arm is rotated so that the palm of the hand faces backward. if the elbow is flexed so that the forearm is horizontal and the palm of the hand is turned to face downwards.


Supination- The opposite of pronation. The palm of the hand is turned to face towards for upwards if the forearm is horizontal.

PLANE AND AXIS

Plane-A plane is an imaginary surface through movement takes place. There are three planes of motion that pass through the human body.

1-Sagittal Plane- sagittal plane is an imaginary vertical surface which divides the body into right and left part or section.

2.Frontal plane-The frontal plane is also and imaginary vertical surface which divides the body into front (interior) and back (posterior) parts or section.

3.Transverse Plane-the transverse plane is an imaginary horizontal surface which divides the body into upper( superior) and lower (inferior) parts or section.

AXIS-An axis is an imaginary straight line around which an object/ part of human body rotates:

1- Saggital Axis-the sagittal axis also known as anteroposterior axis or dorsoventral axis.

2.Frontal Axis-It is also known as horizontal Axis or left right axis.

3.Vertical Axis- The Vertical axis is also known as longitudinal axis or craniocaudal axis.

Newton Law of motion and its application in sports


1.First law of Motion (Law of Inertia).this law states that an object at rest will remain at rest or in motion will remain in motion at a constant velocity unless acted upon by an external force.

Example-A football place at penalty point will remain at rest unless a player kick the ball to move the ball towards goal post. it will move in the direction where the player had exerted the force through kick.

2.Second Law of Motion-it is also named as law of momentum. according to this law of motion, the rate of change in velocity(acceleration)  of an object is directly proportional to the force applied and inversely proportional to the mass of body.

Force =Mass×acceleration

Example-  A volleyball player pushes the ball slowly for a drop whereas hits the ball hard for a smash.

3.Third law of Motion-(Law of action and reaction)

this Law of motion state that for every action there is equal and opposite reaction.

Example-an athlete push the starting block backward, in result athlete in pushed forward.











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